Smell of consuming

Ladies and gentlemen,

Here we are with the last blog.

I hate saying goodbye so I prefer write this blog as it is like all the others and, since the main topic of my blog is linked with the elements affecting people choices in their purchase decision making, I decide to investigate the power of smell in such kind of situation.

It’s quite impossible to don’t recognize the strong power as it has in our everyday experiences.

I don’t know if it is the same for you as well, but every time I smell a particular kind of fragrance I always remember something from the past. For example, just a few days ago, I was walking down the street and suddenly, I smell a strange flavour, which I can’t describe in detail. I didn’t know where this aroma came from but, as soon as I start to smell it, I began to recall my summer days at the seaside. I still don’t know how to define that whiff; the only thing I can associate with it is my past experience.


Don’t worry, I’m not insane because, in some way, past memories and the sense of smell are neurologically connected. Reading this article: “Remembrance of Odors Past: Human Olfactory Cortex in Cross-Modal Recognition Memory”, I discover that the positive recognition of old objects is linked with an activity in the piriform cortex, the area associated with olfactory stimuli. The same activity will not be registered if the participants are seeing a new object.

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These findings have for sure an important connection with the consumers’ world.

As I already underlined in my Christmas blog, scent and the general atmosphere can affect the consumers’ products decisions (Grohmann & Sprott, 2005). Even if the Christmas period could have a positive influence on the consumers’ purchases’ arises, atmosphere scent has a role that companies should not underestimate. Chebat & Michon, 2003, for instance, find out that an environmental scent affects consumers mood as well as their attitude towards the shops and the products. This discovery is also supported by another study (Bone & Jantrania, 1992), which tries to demonstrate whether smell could be and effective element in the product’s estimation or not and, secondly, if the appropriateness of the odor is more critical than its pleasantness. They tested this hypothesis administering to the subjects a household detergent and a sunscreen that were unscented, lemon scented and coconut scented. Following their suggestion, the smelling product will be preferred with respect to the un-scented ones. Moreover, while the coconut sunscreen will be chosen instead of the lemon-scented one, the lemon cleanser will be likely favored than the coconut one. The results confirm their hypothesis, so the scent drives consumers’ decision and, in particular, products with an appropriate smell are more likely to be chosen than the inappropriate ones.

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I have never thought about that. Now, if I try to figure out some cleanser, it’s quite difficult find products with vanilla or coconut smell, all the products have a fresh, clean scent. in fact, I have to admit that probably, I would be the only one in the whole planet willing to buy a vanilla cleanser, especially if it has a good packaging and a great advertising campaign…

Surprisingly, even the brand recognition could be affected by the smell. In this paper: “The Impact of Ambient Scent on Evaluation, Attention, and Memory for Familiar and Unfamiliar Brands”, the author try to investigate not only how the smell could influence the evaluation of the brand, especially the un-familiar one, but also how it could alter the consumers attentive and recall activity towards it. Using a floral scent or an unscented atmosphere, the researchers tried to evaluate a list of brands, timing their performance, further, after 5 minutes, the participants were asked to complete a recognition task.

The results show that, with a pleasant smell, participants are more likely to use cognitive efforts, especially to unfamiliar brands. So, their attention and, as a consequence, their recall skill is higher with unfamiliar brand in the pleasant-smell conditions. It’s important to underline that these differences are not mediated by mood or arousal changes, which don’t change between the scented and non-scented situations.

In conclusion, the scent atmosphere seems to be an important elements to crab consumers’ attention and, but also useful to mitigate their attitude with the product and the brands.

As always, I use this knowledge to try to explain my personal experience and, once again, I remain stunned about the weakness of us as consumers. Not only this blog but also all my entries highlight how simple is for the companies to foresee and change our behaviour, manipulating simple features of the advertising or of the product’s packaging.

I don’t know if I am much worried or excited about that…

What do you think?


Mirror, mirror, here I stand. Who is the fairest in the land?

Here we are again,

This week I’d like to talk about beauty in the true sense of the word.

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Every advertisement I see, is always related to beauty; most of the times the products are linked with beautiful endorsers, other times they’re so ugly to remind you about the importance of taking care of your body and eating healthy food in order to not be like them.

So, beauty is always in the centre of our thoughts, especially, when we are watching television or reading a magazine, but does it actually influence consumer’s decisions?


Have you ever thought that every time you see a real handsome endorser, you don’t think he/she is only a good looking boy/girl, but you always add other features, which improve or decrease the attractiveness of that endorsers? In this article: “The Beauty Match-up Hypothesis: Congruence between Types of Beauty and Product Images in Advertising” I found an answer to this question. The authors, in fact, suggest and demonstrate that beauty perceived by the consumers is not a one-dimensional feature but rather a multidimensional one. So, the researchers find out different ways to define beauty: Classic Beauty, Cute, Sex-Kitten, Sensual, Girl-Next-Door, Exotic, Feminine and Trendy. They also create the “Beauty Match-up Hypothesis”, which states that an effective ad has to show a nice Gestalt: the beauty represented by the model has to be congruent with the message linked with the product. If it happens, the consumer will develop a greater positive attitude towards the ads.

Try, for example, to think if the soft and delicate fragrance of “Miss Dior” perfume is not endorsed by Natalie Portman but by Pamela Anderson, will it have the same effect?

I don’t think so… and not only because I love Natalie Portman…

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In this other article: “Is Beauty Best? Highly Versus Normally Attractive Models in Advertising”, the authors underline that even if the consumers associate high-attractive models with all the good things linked with beauty (success, money) and the normal attractive ones are associated with everyday problems, the consumers still find much more attractive the HAM. So, even if they find the NAM more trustworthy and expert with respect to ordinary problem solving, the ads with HAM are much more effective.

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Actually, our perception of beauty is also influenced by our culture. This paper: “The Construction of Beauty: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Women’s Magazine Advertising”, states that beauty is defined in different way by diverse areas of the world. Comparing women’s ads’ portraits from USA, Singapore and Taiwan the authors find out, first of all, that the aforementioned Classic type of Beauty is preferred worldwide, so probably some aspects of beauty are universal. On the other hand, they find out that Caucasian girl are much more represented in sexual portrait than the Asiatic ones, not only in the Western culture, but also in the Eastern one, where the white Caucasian girl are used in provocative ads and the Asiatic model are portrayed in a more pure way. I find really interesting that the authors underline the fact that the adverts’ philosophy is patriarchal most of the time, so, the logic, which the advertiser follows to create an ad, is to think about what men could think while watching women. So, even if the Classic kind of beauty is recognised worldwide, in western country, the body is the main topic to define beauty, whereas, in the eastern world, is the face, the most important element used to identify it.

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This diversification could naturally trigger the typical feminist issue, which is one of the most favourite topics of us, women. “It’s really unfair that society could allow adverts like this, the model looks so unnatural… it’s not a surprise that anorexia is so widespread among girls…” I can already imagine loads of dialogues like this…

In effect, according to Sean Redmond (2003), advertisement world is trying to insinuate the idea of beauty associated with white, thin women. The problem of anorexia is for sure really important, as, especially among teenagers, the comparison with ads’ model could be very auto-destructive. In fact, as I read in the source “National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders”, the 95% of those who have eating disorders are between the age of 12 and 25.8.

In conclusion, beauty remains the hidden dream of everybody. People could die for beauty, could choose a product only for its beautiful endorser, but the extent to which do we want to go on? As you know, I’m really that kind of gullible person, but even me, I stopped to care a lot about that.

Life is too short to spend it in constant comparing yourself with a fake ad’s portrait.

So, stop watching it with envy and go outside! Have a walk and eat that delicious ice cream the endorser could never eat!

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I love food and television. Am I doomed?

Hi again,

Yesterday I watched television for the first time since I am here in UK and as in Italy, I faced a lot of commercials especially linked with food, which of course lead to one of my greatest problem: food’s consumption.

Hamburger eating lazy couch potato

Imagine the scene: I am relaxed, sitting on my sofa and watching a good movie. Suddenly, it stops and the commercials start to be broadcasted, nothing wrong, except that the greater part of them is food advertisements. All of a sudden I start to feel very hungry and I can’t stop myself to go and eat something, which is, the most of the time, a junk food. I know myself; I know that I’m really a weak person in this point of view but after watching those commercials, it seems that you have to eat something to make the movie much more beautiful and excited.

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Since I’m not the only one who behaves like this, I start to think how influent foods’ commercials are with consumers’ behaviour. In particular, I start to think that if these ads are so effective with adults, they could have a greater effect on children.


A lot of studies confirm my assumption.

First of all, Borzekowsky and Robinson (2001) suggest that food’s commercials can actually affect pre-scholar children’s food preferences. They try to demonstrate this hypothesis in an experiment, in which children see a videotape of a famous cartoon with or without foods’ commercials. The results show that commercials have a great influence in the short-term food’s preferences. In particular, they find out that only 1 or 2 exposures are enough for 10- 30 sec. commercials to persuade children. In addition to that, I get to know that this great power is linked only with food; when the researchers make the same experiment with toys’ commercials, the children don’t seem to be so gullible as in the previous trials. The authors try to explain it with the fact that maybe children don’t choose toys leaded by short-term preferences. Moreover, in the toys’ ads, there are a lot of colour changes and this could distract children’s attention.

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So, food’s commercial could have a great power on children, and on me of course, but this could become a problem if a great number of TV commercials are linked with junk food.

In this interesting article: “The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children’s food attitudes and preferences”, the authors explain that the longer is the time children pass in front of the television, the more positive will be their attitude towards junk food advertisements, which are the most frequently ads broadcasted during children’s TV shows. Children who spend a lot of time watching television, start to create beliefs in agreement with the ones passed by commercials; for example, they start to think that eating food every day is a normal behaviour and that it is a good behave because a lot of people do it. For these reasons, the authors suggest that it could be useful to implement these ads with healthy food commercials. They did some researches and found out that the impact of healthy food’s commercials works only if they are not followed by the junky ones. This could be explained by the fact that the healthy ads are trying to change a normal message children get used to. In fact, children are accustomed to watch junk food commercials during their television time, so seeing different kinds of ads could not bring the expected responses.

…And then, the society is scandalised by the sharp increase of obesity among children.

I’m not so surprised. If junk food is now seen as the normal every day food, the increasing number of obese on the streets is a logical consequence. Come on, don’t hide yourself behind a finger.

junk food 2  junk food

The worst thing is that, as Halford, Gillespie, Brown, Pontin&Dovey (2004) demonstrate, obese and overweight children could faster recognise food’s adverts than the non-food ones. In contrast it doesn’t happen with their normal weight peers.  Secondly, the results show that the view of food commercials are significantly linked with the consumption of the advertised food. Even if all children eat more after watching commercials, the amount of food’s intake is grater among overweight and obese children, even when they’re watching non-food ads.

All these researches make me think a lot about this problem and, according to the nutritional consultant, Adrienne Dorf, I think that parents have to be more involved with this problem. They should help their children to be more aware that the thing they see on screen, especially adverts are not true, and the food they see is not healthy for them.

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Since we can’t change the society, we should try to start from the little things.

Regarding me, I’m a hopeless case, but I’m 24, I’m aware of everything and if I want to go with the flow, it’s only my choice and I have to face the consequences.

I can’t stop loving… Christmas…

Hi everybody,

As I promised in my last post, I’m going to talk about Christmas this week.

I know, very predictable, but come on, it’s a non-sense to have a consumer blog and don’t talk about Christmas one month before it comes.

Furthermore, in three words, I LOVE CHRISTMAS.

There’s nothing I can do, I love all its aspects, the lights, the gifts, the food, the big dinner with my family, the consumerism, the Coke’s television commercials, the snow, Santa, the Christmas’ movies and of course the carols.

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It is against my values not to write a post about it. I’ve been waiting for this moment from September. So, let’s start!

I don’t need a scientific article to get aware that Christmas can actually affect consumers’ choices, anyway, I read some papers about that and I was really stroked by a particular one. In this article, “The Impact of Television Advertising on Children’s Christmas Wishes”, the authors underline how Christmas commercials can actually influence children’s Christmas wishes.

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In order to demonstrate this hypothesis, the researchers ask children about their favourite gifts and then, they check if the brand of the products is broadcasted during Christmas time and how many times it appears on a screen. The results show that the more requested brands are the ones that are frequently broadcasted. So, Christmas adverts are really effective, especially on children.  Principally, the younger ones and those who watch more television.

This is only a first instance about how powerful Christmas is for the consumers.

In another piece of work, by Spangenberg, Grohmann and Sprott (2005), there is a typical Emma’s behaviour well explained: to choose the retails that are playing carols. The authors try to measure the effect of implementation of the Christmas music and scent among Consumers. They take, as independent variables, the music and the atmosphere caused by the smell. On the other hand, as the dependent variable, they examine the costumer’s consideration of the retail store, its environment and its merchandise.The researchers find out that the consumers change their way to evaluate the shops leaded by the congruency between the music and the scent shops. So, if the shoppers are able to create a congruent atmosphere in their retails, make music and perfume linked with the Christmas spirit, they will get much more costumers.

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This article nudges me to focus on Christmas Music in particular.

As I explain in my last blog, music is an important element to use in order to make people more involved with the advertisements (Kellaris, Cox & Cox, 1993). Actually, it has loads of effects, even on consumers’ attitude towards shops (North et al., 1998).

As the Entertainment Media Research Ltd finds out, music is a very powerful tool for the advertisers and the retailers during Christmas holidays. As it states, in a study conducted among people from 15 to 54 years old, 95% of them prefer to make shopping in retails, which play Christmas music.

Furthermore, they prefer it even respect music that they already know. This can be explained with different reasons. First of all, Christmas music evokes joyful memoires linked with childhood and family in consumers. Secondly, these carols are famous worldwide; people, while singing these songs, share their emotions and happiness.

Thirdly, a study underlines that people are really attached with particular songs. In this other website,  there is ‘the top ten list of the most loved Christmas songs of the last decade’ shown. The top three songs are: 3- Fairytale Of New York by Pogues; 2-Last Christmas by Wham!; 1- All I Want For Christmas Is You by Mariah Carey.

Actually, I’m not so in agreement with this evaluation, as a deepened Christmas lovers I prefer the older songs, the ones from the classical Christmas movies.

In conclusion, this piece of work finds out a really good point: even if the Christmas music could be divided into religious songs such as “O Come All Ye Faithful” or “Silent Night” and pop songs like “Jingle Bells Rock” or “Winter Wonderland”, during the Christmas holidays they are mixed together, they’re played, for example, in the same radio station. It seems like a strategy to discharge all the religious meaning from the songs in order to obtain a positive evaluation even from people who don’t believe in the Christian values.

Everyone could love Christmas.

In the same way, the advertisers always refer to Santa, Rudolph- the reindeer, or the Elves but never mention Jesus.

I know, it’s only a matter of commercialism, there’s nothing behind it.

… but no… I love it the same.

You can think of me as a naïve, superficial or just a childish girl, I don’t care.

Come on, don’t ruin so happy period just because you have to be sceptical and cynical.

Remember, even the Grinch starts to appreciate Christmas at the end.

Music is always the solution.

Hi everybody,

In this week off, I had time to think about my self-experience with the consumer world and I became aware of the fact that I’m extremely sensitive to ads music. When I say sensitive, I mean I have a serious problem with this noisy, repetitive, addictive music that is a characteristic feature of a great number of television commercials.

I started to think about that while I was writing my assignment. Even if I try with all myself to concentrate on the work, I can’t stop singing the background music of One Direction’s fragrance ad, which starts every time I decide to watch a video on Youtube.

It was completely stronger than me; I kept going on singing for all day.

So, I started to get involved in this topic. Reading some papers, I realized that music has an intense power on consumers’ attitudes.

One of the first articles I read is written by Kellaris, Cox & Cox (1993) who try to investigate how music could affect consumer ad’s processing. They focus on two particular elements: the music’s attention-gaining value, which is the attentive level aroused by music and the music’s message congruency: the relation between the information conveyed by music and the one of the ad’s message. The two authors find out that the increase of the attention-gaining value of a message-congruent music will increment the recall of the information because they’re similar with the ones passed by verbal communications in the ad. On the other hand, raising the audience attention of music, which has an incongruent message respect the one passed with spoken words, doesn’t increase the recall and recognition ability of the consumers.It happens because, in the first situation, the information is represented in both verbal and non-verbal way, while, in the second case, the verbal message and the non-verbal one are different.

So music can actually affect our way to elaborate the ad but how can we manipulate it in order to have a more effective advertisement?

Sidney Hecker underlines the importance of the jingles for the modern advertisements and tries to find out all the elements that could make music for advertisements much more effective. She starts to highlight that the good jingles have a neat aim and a reward for its listeners. In fact, for instance, in the Fritos Corn Chips ad, the music tries to enjoy the consumers and to lead the feelings of fun and joy, which is usually caused by this very product. So, in this case, the aim is to enhance good feelings in the audience and the reward for the consumers is to feel the sense of fun and excitement while listening to the ad’s music.

She points out some aspects that music should bring in the advertisements. These are:

  • Background: the music in this case has to be made just to improve the power of the ad’s message;
  • Excitement: music for television or radio’s ad should bring emotion in the consumers and it should give them a reason to remain tune for the selling information;
  • Relaxation: is the case for particular kind of product such as pain remedies;
  • Empathy: the ad could became part of consumer’s life through music;
  • Attention: music could increase attention towards the product;
  • News: when a new product has to be sold, the music could help the communication designing an “announcement” atmosphere;
  • Imagery: music could help to build a long-term personality.

Moreover, the author identifies some efficacious technique to use in order to create more effective ads, such as poetry (rhymes could positively influence the ad attitude); repetition (simple sentences continuously repeated increase the ad recall); humour, sex appeal and so on.

Even in another article, titled “Music, Mood and Marketing”, the author underlines what are the music’s elements that have much more influence on people.

The author finds out three main elements that could influence music’s perception and these are: time, pitch and texture.

Regarding time, the author states that when the music’s tempo is slow, the listeners feel much more relaxed respect when the tempo is faster. Secondly, when the “phrasing” of the music is “staccato” the listeners have a sense of anxiety, energy, when the music is legato, the perception is more peaceful and fantastic.

The other element considered is the pitch. The author states that the higher is the pitch, the more appealing and cheerful the music is sensed.

Finally the texture, one of the dimensions related with this characteristic is volume and the findings in this field point out that louder music elicits feeling of triumph, while the slower one is perceive as more graceful and calm.

All of these elements could be used to create an effective music background for the advertisements.  In fact, as Stewart and Furse (1986) state there’s a significant correlation between the auditory memory device (a brain function related with music) and the recall and comprehension of advertisements.

Don’t worry, the Christmas topic is coming soon….

… and what about text?

Hi everybody,

Being interested in every kind of input we receive while watching an ad, I decide to focus on the importance of the advertisement text.

I’ve always been interested in advertisement’s text and, particularly, in its effects on customers: I always ask myself why something apparently so insignificant could influence people’s attitudes.

You would be surprised knowing how much we could be influenced by some seemingly marginal elements of the ad.

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First of all, I found an interesting book entitled: “Confessions of an Advertising Man”  (David Ogilvy, 2006). The author tries to point out all the best way to make ads effective. He says that the text, in particular the headline, has the most important role in the advertisement because it grabs people’s attention and it is the element which motivate people to read the rest of the ad. For this reason it should be characterized by certain features:

•          It should be attractive;

•          It should contain words positively connoted as ‘free, new, now, announcing, improvement…;

•          Long ads are more effective than short ones;

•          It should contain a promise;

•          It should make the reader curious about the content of the ad;

•          It has to be neat and clear;

•          It should be positive;

•          It should always have a meaning.

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In this article: “Effects of Typographic Factors in Advertising-Based Persuasion: A General Model and Initial Empirical Tests” the same topic is discussed in detail.

When the authors talk about typography, they refer to the style, spacing and layout of words and sentences in printed texts or showed on a display. In particular, typeface features are related to the concrete image of the text. Spacing, on the other hand, refers to the space between words, between letters in the same word and between lines in the whole text. Finally, the layout features handle the words and text’s location. All this elements affect people’s elaboration process and, through their impact on the semantic correlation, advertisement’s legibility and looks, they can persuade people and somehow modify their behaviours.

In particular, the researchers try to investigate the relation between typeface features (type style, type size and x-height) and legibility. Type style, type size and x-height are important for the legibility of the text, but what the authors are interested in, is their interrelation between.

Precisely, they found out that, letter size (linked with x-height and type size) is more effective for advertisement’s legibility than the capital distinctiveness (type style). In fact, the bigger letters are, the less important becomes their distinctiveness. Inversely, decreasing the letters’ size, the type style becomes more important for ad’s legibility. The same happens with x height. About the relation between type style and x height, since it could be considered a letter size feature, it has much more impact on people’s legibility. For this reason, if we relate x-height and type style, the effects on legibility of type style increase if the x-height decreases.

Finally, they try to prove this hypothesis through an experiment in which they measure the participants’ reading execution.       The results point out that, even if there’re individual differences (personal reading skills), the typography features of the text are linked to ads’ legibility, especially if we consider the relation between the three features aforementioned.However, even if the study concerns persuasion, the results do not find out how the typography of print ads could affect two typical tests of consumers persuasion: brand or ad attitude.

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As Pieters, R., & Wedel, M. (2004) states, the best print ads are the ones that can capture consumers attention. In this way people extract the ad from the environment and choose to select its information above all the other ads.  The author states that, while the elaboration of the picture is naturally older and connected with pre-attentive system, the text processing is natively younger and is linked to the attentive process, so it’s slow, effortful and intentional.

For these reasons the elaboration of texts requires more eye fixation and, for the same surface units, text processing takes much more attentive efforts than the images.

The authors so, suggest that increasing the ad surface addressed to text could intensify consumers’ attention on text information.

The results confirm their hypothesis and, while pictorial information doesn’t need a surface units increasing to grab attention, expanding text surface will rise the people’s attention upon it.

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Hi everybody,

As with every week I keep on talking about the elements of every kind of advertisements’, which could in some ways potentially change our attitude towards the brand or the ad itself.

This week, provoked by a friend suggestion, I decided to focus my attention on the use of celebrity endorsement in advertising.

I confess that I am that kind of person that is easily influenced by testimonials, despite knowing it’s something ridiculous, but I don’t know how I can modify it.

To give you an idea of my oddity, I want to talk about my obsession with Natalie Portman. I think she is one of the best actresses in the world and I follow her from her first movies. When she became the Dior’s perfume testimonial, I “unexplainably” started to love its fragrance and, after gazed on it every time I passed near a perfume shop, I finally bought it…I was seduced and sold at the same time… Shame on me!


The literature is full of articles both favourable and adverse about using testimonials in advertisements.

Till B. D & Shimp T. A. (2013) recognize there’s a strong relationship between the brand and the endorsers due to the persistent association of the two stimuli together. When two items are presented in the same time, their nodal representations are activated and associated in the memory of a person. When a link between a brand and its testimonial has been created, every time you think about the brand you connect it with the celebrity and the same occurs in the other direction. For example Michael Jordan is likelihood associated with “Nike” or “Chicago Bulls” and every time we see a Michael Jordan’s picture, we immediately think about his Nikes or the Chicago Bulls team.

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Furthermore, once an association is created, every node will affect all the other ones not directly linked with it.

The researchers use this information to demonstrate that celebrity endorsements are not always functional for the brand. In fact, the negative information, just as like the positive one, are associated to the celebrities are, and consequently, are linked with the brand.  It is the reason why, they state, advertiser use a lot of cartoon characters o passed celebrity.

Petty, Cacioppo and Schumann’s (1983) found out that consumers have two ways to elaborate information: central and peripheral; when they’re low involved with the contents of the communication, the information is processed through the peripheral path and is in this situation that endorsers help to shape consumer’s response. So, when a consumer is interest in the product promoted, his attitude is much more related with reasonable contentions.

Sliburyte, L. (2009), using this theory, point out some ideas useful to get the best advantages from celebrity endorsements in advertise.

She found seven factors, which could influence people’s purchase decision:

Source credibility: celebrity’s competence about the product he’s publicizing;

Expertise and trustworthiness: the more credible is the star, the more persuasive is the message he\she pass.

Source Attractiveness: this factor isn’t related only whit physical characteristics of the testimonials but it involved also acumen, sport skills, glamour and elegance. All this endorsers’ features are linked with a more effective advertisement.

Celebrity-product congruence: the confluence between the product promoted and the image carried by its endorsers has a good influence on consumers’ view of the brand.

Celebrity multiplicity: the more endorsers are involved in a brand advertisement, the more engaged consumers the company obtain.

Celebrity activations: the brand obtains more positive attitudes, if the testimonial shines in his\her work.

Celebrity and audience gender: this relation is not yet proved, there aren’t findings which can explain how celebrities’ gender and could influence purchase decision.

This other article: “The Impact of Corporate Credibility and Celebrity Credibility on Consumer Reaction to Advertisements and Brands” compare the importance of company and endorsers credibility. The researchers hypothesize that this two variables have different effects on consumers and the results of their study confirm their point of view: while company credibility have much more power to influence purchase intent, consumers’ attitudes toward both ad and brand; celebrity credibility have effects only on brand and ad attitude.

Finally, I agree with article:

It states that, even if celebrity endorsers could represent a huge risk for the company, the profit of such kind a strategy overcome the hazard.

In fact, studies show that when a company start an endorsement deal with a celebrity the sales increase of the 20%.

Company could get a lot of profit using celebrities in their ads. Some famous example are Patrick Dempsey’s success with his Avon fragrance, or Justin Timberlake’ endorsement for the Givenchy perfume “Play for her”.


Come on, watch this pictures, how could they be ineffective???

What do you think?